A Study on Post-Colonialism and How “France-Afrique” Policy Led to Anti-French Coups

by Dr Hichem Karoui

Abstract

The current trend of citizens in certain African nations backing coups d’état and expressing support for military takeovers is a significant concern among scholars, social scientists, and observers of African social and political developments. Should we attribute the noticed phenomenon to the disillusionment arising from the unfulfilled promise that democracy in a globalised world would bring about prosperity and enhance living standards? Should we instead consider the multitude of social, economic, security, and political challenges these nations face? And how to explain in this context the anti-French stances witnessed during popular demonstrations supporting the coups in Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, and Gabon?

France is, apparently, the first target of the masses’ animosity. In France, when riots and violence burst out, some used to link them to the frustrated population of the suburbs, primarily compounded by Muslims from immigration. The idea that some Islamist organisations manipulate the demonstrators is never discarded. But it is not always true. In France, we did not only witness the revolt of young people against some illegal behaviour of the order enforcers, racism, discrimination and stigmatisation of Islam and Muslims. We also witnessed the revolt of the “Gilets jaunes” and, recently, the French farmers.

Obviously, Macron’s policies do not bring satisfaction and happiness to French territory. Then what about Africa? Moreover, we should not overlook the geopolitical factor: other global powers are competing with France, i.e., the USA, China, and Russia. Did they play any role? Do they benefit from the coups in the four countries? These questions and others will be answered in this study.

 

 

CONTENTS

Part (I)
The Causes of Frequent Military Coups in Africa
Military Coups in Africa: A Historical Overview
Origin of Military Coups in Africa
Quantifying Military Coups in Africa Since 1952
Why so many coups in Africa?
Six Major Factors

Part (II)
An Examination of the Anti-French Trend
Macron Does Not Trust Huntington
Questioning France’s Policies
Why Are They Important to France?

Part (III)
“France-Afrique” Policy
When France-Afrique is Perceived as a System of Control
Affected Economies
Broader Geopolitical Context
Those who made France-Afrique
France-Afrique in Agony
Unravelling the Franco-African Nexus
Comparison with Anglophone Africa: A Contrast
Factor X: Islam?

Part (IV)
Geopolitical Factors:
Who Profits From the Anti-French Coups?
Part (V) Conclusion and Key Findings
Bibliography
About the Author

 

Executive Summary

This research study explores the intricate matter of military coups in Africa, particularly emphasising the contemporary phenomenon of citizens in select African countries demonstrating endorsement for military seizures of power. The author critically analyses the various factors contributing to this phenomenon and investigates the underlying causes for the increasing hostility towards France within these political upheavals.

 I: The Causes of Frequent Military Coups in Africa

The study commences by offering an extensive sociopolitical analysis of military coups in the African continent. It is recognised that military coups have been a recurring phenomenon in the continent’s postcolonial history, garnering significant international attention. The history of colonialism, arbitrary borders, ethnically varied states, economic limitations, a lack of democratic traditions, and Cold War politics are all factors that contribute to this trend. The comprehensive understanding of African military coups necessitates adopting an interdisciplinary framework integrating political science, history, and sociology.

 II: An Examination of the Anti-Democratic or Anti-French Trend

The study investigates if anti-French or democratic disillusionment is behind the recent support for military coups. This inquiry critically examines France’s policies in Africa and their consequential implications, delving into the concept of “France-Afrique” as a mechanism of exerting control. The author also examines the eventual role that other major world powers like the USA, China, and Russia might have played in these coups.

 III:  “France-Afrique” Policy.

This section comprehensively analyses the “France-Afrique” policy and its historical backdrop. It examines how France-Afrique is viewed as a control system, its effects on the economies in which it operates, and the larger geopolitical environment in which it functions. The paper additionally names important figures implicated in the France-Afrique connection and posits that this policy may be experiencing a waning trajectory.

 IV: Geopolitical Factors

The research continues by analysing the geopolitical variables that underlie the occurrence of these anti-French coups. This inquiry raises concerns regarding the beneficiaries of these coups and examines the involvement of global forces within this framework.

The book thoroughly analyses the complicated causes surrounding military coups in Africa and the rising anti-French sentiment witnessed during these events. Through an analysis of historical, sociological, and geopolitical aspects, this study offers unique insights into a prominent issue within current African politics.

 

The study is available as an E-book and a Paperback.

You can get it from Amazon and other retailers.

You can also get it at a discounted price from our Online Shop.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *